WB C697c 1886
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NATIONAL LI8RARY OF MEDICINE
NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE NATION.
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ORDINANCES AND BY-LAWS
COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS
As Amended June 2nd, 188G.
NON SIEI SED TOT I.
BUKK & McFETKIDGE, PKINTEES.
NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE
WASHINGTON, D. C.
The College was instituted in January, 1787, and incorporated
in March, 1789 ; the Ordinances and By-Laws were revised and
finally adopted July, 1840 ; since which time various additions
and amendments have been made to them, all of which are in-
corporated in the present revised edition.
Ordinances and By-Laws.
Chap. I. Members and Membership . . . .10
II. Officers of the College and their Duties . 15
III. The Council 19
IV. Meetings 22
V. Standing Committees 24
VI. Committee of Publication . . . .24
VII. Library Committee 25
VIII. Rules for Government of Library . . 26
IX. Committee on the Mutter Museum . . 28
X. Hall Committee 32
XI. Committee on the Directory for Nurses . 33
XII. Committee on Finance 33
XIII. William F. Jenks Prize Committee . . 34
XIV. Committee on Entertainments . . .34
XV. Neglect of Duty 35
XVI. Special Committees 35
XVII. Rules of Order 36
XVIII. Code of Medical Ethics 39
XIX. Revision and Enactment of Ordinances and
List op Presidents 64
Officers and Standing Committees for 1886 . . 65
List of Fellows, Associate Fellows and Corres-
ponding Members 66
An Act for the Incorporation of the College
of Physicians of Philadelphia.
1. Whereas, the Phsyicians of Philadelphia, in-
fluenced by a conviction of the many advantages
which have arisen from literary institutions, have
associated themselves under the name and title of
The College of Physicians of Philadelphia :
2. And whereas, the objects of this College are to
advance the science of medicine, and thereby to
lessen human misery, by investigating the diseases
and remedies which are peculiar to this country; by
observing the effect of different seasons, climates,
and situations upon the human body; by recording
the changes which are produced in disease by the
progress of agriculture, arts, population, and man-
ners; by searching for medicines in the American
Avoods, waters, and in the bowels of the earth ; by
enlarging the avenues to knowledge from the dis-
coveries and publications of foreign countries; and
by cultivating order and uniformity in the practice
of physic :
3. And whereas, the said College of Physicians
have prayed us, the Representatives of the Freemen
of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, that they
may he created a body politic and corporate, for-
ever, with such powers, privileges, and immunities
as may best answer the laudable purposes which
the members thereof have in view ; wherefore, to
assist and encourage the said College of Physi-
cians, in the prosecution and advancement of
useful knowledge for the benefit of their country
and of mankind,
4. Be it enacted, and it is hereby enacted, by the
Representatives of the Freemen of the Commonwealth
of Pennsylvania, in General Assembly met, and by the
authority of the same, That the members of the said
College of Physicians, that is to say, John Redman,
John Jones, William Shippen, Jun., Adam Kuhn,
John Morgan, Benjamin Rush, Samuel Dufrield,
Gerardus .Clarkson, George Glentworth, Thomas
Parke, James Hutchinson, Robert Harris, John
Carson, Benjamin Dufheld, William W. Smith,
John Foulke, Samuel Powcl Grifritts, William
Clarkson, William Currie, Benjamin Say, Andrew
Ross, John Morris, Nathan Dorsey, James Cunn-
ingham, Caspar Wistar, Jun., Michael Leib, and
John H. Gibbons, be, and the same persons are,
and shall be, a body corporate and politic in deed
and in name, by the name and style of " The
College of Physicians of Philadelphia," and
by the same name, they and their successors are
hereby constituted and confirmed one body cor-
porate and politic in law, to have perpetual suc-
cession, and to be able and capable to have, hold
and enjoy any goods and chattels, lands, tenements,
rents, hereditaments, gifts, and bequests, of what
nature soever, in fee simple, or for term of years,
life or lives, or otherwise; and also to grant, sell,
alien, assign, or let the same lands, tenements,
and premises, according to the nature of the
respective grants and bequests made to the said
corporation, and of the estate of the said corpora-
tion therein ; provided, that the amount of the
clear yearly value of such real estate exceed not
the sum of five hundred pounds, lawful money of
5. The said corporation be, and shall be forever
hereafter, able and capable in law, to sue and be
sued, plead and be impleaded, answer and lie an-
swered unto, defend and be defended, in all or any
courts of justice and other places, in all manner
of suits, actions, complaints, pleas, causes, and
matters of what nature or kind soever; and that
it shall and may be lawful to and for the said
corporation, forever hereafter, to have and use a
common seal, and the same seal, at the will and
pleasure of the said corporation, to break, change,
alter, and renew.
6. For the well ordering of the said corporation
and its affairs, there shall be, at all times here-
after, the following officers of the same ; that is
to say, one President, one Vice-President, four
Censors, a Secretary, and a Treasurer, who shall
be chosen, annually, from amongst the Fellows of
the said College of Physicians, on the first Tuesday
in the month of July for ever hereafter*- or within
one calendar "month after the same day, in any
year ; and that John Redman be the present Presi-
dent of the said College; John Jones, the present
Vice-President; William Shippen, Jnn., Adam
Kuhn, Benjamin Rush, and Samuel Duffield, the
present Censors; Samuel Powel Griffitts, the
present Secretary ; and Gerardus Clarkson, the
present Treasurer of the said College ; and shall
be and remain the President, Vice-President,
Censors, Secretary, and Treasurer, respectively,
of the said College, until they be superseded by a
new election to be made by the Fellows of the said
College as aforesaid; and all vacancies by death,
resignation, or otherwise, which shall at any time
hereafter happen in any of the said offices, may
be filled by a special election, to be holden so often
as occasion shall require.
7. The authorities and duties of the officers of
the said corporation who are hereinbefore men-
tioned, and of any others which the said corpora-
tion shall see fit to appoint, the times of meeting
of the said corporation, the admission of members,
and the other concerns of the said corporation,
shall be regulated by the By-laws and Ordinances
of the said corporation, heretofore made or to be
made, touching the premises.
8. Provided always, That no By-laws nor Ordi-
nances of the said corporation, hereafter made,
* By a decree of the Court of Common Pleas, Dee. 3d 1858
the clause in Italics was altered to read as follows : Wednesday
in the month of January next, and annually thereafter.
shall be binding upon the officers or members
thereof, unless the same shall be proposed at one
regular meeting of the said corporation, and enacted
and received at another, after the intervention of
at least thirty days. And that no sale, or aliena-
tion, or lease for above three years, of any part of
the real estate of the said corporation, shall be
valid, unless the terms and nature of such sale or
lease be proposed at a previous meeting of the said
Signed by order of the House,
Richard Peters, Speaker.
Enacted into a law, at Philadelphia, on Thurs-
day, the twenty-sixth day of March, in the year of
our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-
Peter Zaciiary Lloyd,
Clerk of the General Assembly.
ORDINANCES AND BY-LAWS.
MEMBERS AND MEMBERSHIP.
1. The College shall consist of Fellows, Asso-
ciate Fellows, and Corresponding Members.
2. The Fellows shall be physicians, of good
character and professional standing, residing
within the city of Philadelphia, or within thirty
miles thereof, in the State of Pennsylvania, over
twenty-four years of age, and graduates of at least
five years' standing.
3. The Associate Fellows shall be distinguished
foreign or American physicians, residing beyond
the limits of Philadelphia.
4. The Corresponding Members shall be foreign
or American physicians, residing beyond the
limits of Philadelphia, and shall be selected be-
cause of their devotion to medical science, and
with a view to advance the interests for which the
College was founded.
5. No person who gives his support to any sys-
tem of practice which tends to weaken or diminish
public confidence in the science of medicine, or
in the medical profession ; or who, by advertise-
ment or other improper means, announces his
claim to superior qualifications in the treatment
of disease, or of a particular disease or class of
diseases ; or who holds a patent or a part of a
patent for a surgical instrument; or who enters
into an agreement with an apothecary with a
view to pecuniary profit or to professional pa-
tronage ; or who gives to one apothecary the
formula of a prescription which he refuses to
give to others ; or who deals in secret medicines,
or publicly recommends them, shall be eligible to
be a Fellow, Associate Fellow, or Corresponding
Member of the College. Any Fellow, Associate
Fellow, or Corresponding Member who shall be
found guilty by the Censors of having violated
any of these provisions, shall forfeit his member-
ship in the College: Provided, however, that an
appeal from the decision of the Censors shall be
permitted in this, as in all other cases.
6. Candidates for Fellowship, Associate Fellow-
ship, or Corresponding Membership, may be pro-
posed in writing, by three Fellows, at any stated
meeting of the College. Every proposition for
Fellowship shall be referred to the Council, and
upon its favorable recommendation the candidate
shall be eligible for election at any stated meet-
ing ; but no proposition shall be submitted to a
vote unless it shall have been read at three suc-
cessive stated meetings of the College, and unless
proper notice of the candidacy shall have been
given, and unless there are present at least twenty
qualified voters, when, if four-fifths of the ballots
cast be favorable to tbe candidate, he shall be de-
clared duly elected.
7. No candidate who is rejected shall be again
proposed within the twelve months following the
date of such rejection.
8. The names of the persons proposed as can-
didates for Fellowship, Associate Fellowship, or
Corresponding Membership, shall not be entered
on the minutes of the College, unless the said
candidates are elected. In case of the rejection
of any candidate, the paper containing his nomi-
nation shall be destroyed immediately after the
9. No person elected shall acquire the rights of
Fellowship until he has signed the Ordinances
and By-laws, and paid the entrance fee ; and the
omission of such signing and payment until the
expiration of three months after his election, shall
render his election void.
10. The entrance fee shall be twenty-five dollars,
payable on or before signing the Ordinances and
By-laws. The annual contribution shall be fifteen
dollars, payable in advance, in three equal instal-
ments, at the stated meetings in January, May,
and September respectively ; but no entrance fee
and no annual contribution shall be required of
those Fellows, not exceeding five in number at
any one time, who have been recommended by
the Council, and approved by the College, as
deserving such distinction, on account of their
scientific attainments, or of their services to the
11. A Fellow on the payment in one sum of
two hundred dollars, provided he be not in arrears
at the time, shall be exempt from all annual
contributions during the continuance of his Fellow-
ship. All sums so paid shall be invested by the
Treasurer, under the direction of the Committee
on Finance, as a permanent fund ; and only the
income thereof shall be used.
12. Any Fellow who foils to pay his annual
contribution, shall, at the expiration of two years,
be formally notified thereof by the Treasurer, and
if he then fails to make payment within thirty
days, he shall forfeit his Fellowship, and it shall
be the duty of the Treasurer to give notice thereof
at the next stated meeting of the College : Provided,
however, that if any Fellow shall be absent from
Philadelphia, for twelve consecutive months or
more, a deduction shall be made from the amount
of his annual contribution, corresponding to the
duration of his absence.
13. No Fellow who may remove permanently
from the United States, or who may remove from
the city of Philadelphia, to reside at a distance
exceeding thirty miles from the city, shall in
consequence ot such removal, forfeit his Fellow-
ship ; but he shall be exonerated from the payment
of the annual contribution after his formal notifi-
cation to the Secretary of the College of his
change of residence.
14. No Associate Fellow or Corresponding
Member who may come to reside within the limits
of the city of Philadelphia, shall be admitted to
Fellowship in the College without being proposed
anew and elected as a Fellow.
15. The number of Associate Fellows shall not
exceed fifty, twenty of whom may he foreigners.
16. Associate Fellows and Corresponding Mem-
bers may attend the meetings of the College and
participate in its discussions, but shall not be
allowed to take part in the transaction of its
17. Every Fellow, Associate Fellow, and Cor-
responding Member of the College shall receive
a certificate of Fellowship according to the an-
nexed form, signed by the President, Vice-Presi-
dent, Censors, and Secretary, and having the seal
of the College affixed thereto.
Nos, Preeses, Viec-Prccses, Censoresque Collegii Medi-
corum Philadelphia} sis, omnibus ad quos haze per-
Testamur virum doctum
et medicinoe, perilum, nostri Collegii Socium
adscriptum fuisse, omnesque ejus honores et privileqia,
jure riteque consecution esse. In cvjus reijidem hisee
Uteris, Collegii sigillo munitis, nomina nostra subjici-
1 rs Oi£J<t.
Anno Domini 18
18. The signing of the Constitution adopted in
1787, shall be deemed equivalent to a subscription
to the Ordinances and By-laws of the College in
force for the time being.
19. When the announcement is made to the
College of the death of a Fellow, it shall be entered
upon the minutes, and a Fellow shall be appointed
by the President, whenever the Censors shall so
recommend, to prepare a memoir of the deceased.
OFFICERS OF THE COLLEGE AND THEIR DUTIES.
1. The officers of the College, designated by its
Charter, namely, a President, a Vice-President,
four Censors, a Secretary, and a Treasurer, shall
be nominated on the first Wednesday in December
of each year, and elected annually, by ballot, on
the first Wednesday in January, or within one
calendar month thereafter. ~No Fellow shall be
eligible to the office of President for more than
three years in succession.
An Honorary Librarian, a Curator, a Recorder,
two Councillors, to serve for three years, and the
Members of the several Standing Committees,
except the Committee on Finance, the Committee
on Entertainments, and the Committee on the
William F. Jenks prize, shall be annually nomi-
nated and elected at the same time and in the
same manner as prescribed for the election of the
Officers designated by the Charter of the College.
Any vacancy may be filled by special election,
of which due notice shall be given ; but no Fellow
shall be eligible for election to any office or elec-
tive Standing Committee, who has not been duly
nominated at a stated meeting previous to that at
which the election is held. Any vacancy occur-
ring in an appointed Standing Committee shall
be thereupon filled by the President.
At each annual or special election the Secretary
shall provide a sufficient number of ballots con-
taining: the names of those Fellows who have
been duly nominated for election to any office or
The voter shall erase from his ballot all names,
except those of candidates for whom he wishes to
vote. If more names of those nominated for any
office than there are places to be filled are allowed
to remain, the ballot as regards thatoffi.ee shall be
2. The President shall have general supervision
of the affairs of the College, maintain order at the
meetings, sign all warrants on the Treasurer, duly
ordered by the College, and deliver an Annual
Address at the stated meeting in December. He
shall have power to call special meetings at his
own discretion ; and it shall be his duty to call
them, when requested to do so in writing by six
Fellows. He shall be notified of the times of
meeting of all Standing Committees, and have a
right to attend the same.
3. The Vice-President shall perform the duties
of the President in the absence of the latter officer,
or at his request when present. In the absence of
both the President and Vice-President, a Chair-
man for the meeting shall be elected vied voce.
4. The Censors shall hear all charges that may
be preferred against a Fellow ; and shall report
thereon to the College at its next stated meeting.
When, however, a Censor is one of the parties
concerned, the charge shall be referred to a com-
mittee of three Fellows chosen by ballot, who
shall act as Censors pro hdc vice.
5. The Treasurer shall have the custody of all
papers relating to the finances of the College; he
shall collect and receive all moneys due to the
College, and shall disburse them only upon a
warrant ordered by the College and signed by the
President, or by the Chairman of the meeting at
which the warrant was ordered ; and these warrants
shall be the vouchers for his expenditures. At the
stated meeting in December, he shall present an
annual report, embracing a statement of the
finances of the College, and an estimate" of the
income for the ensuing year, together with an
estimate of the expenses of his office for the same
6. The Secretary shall keep correct minutes of
the proceedings of the College, and after their
approval, shall enter them in a book provided for
the purpose. He shall keep a list of the Fellows,
Associate Fellows, and Corresponding Members,
with a record of the residence, the date of the
election, and the time of the death, resignation,
or loss of Fellowship of each. He shall have
the custody of all the records ; and shall keep in
regular files, properly labelled, all documents and
papers, belonging to the College, not otherwise
provided for. He shall notify the Officers and
members of Standing Committees of their election;
also the Chairman of every Special Committee of
his appointment, and shall furnish each Chairman
with the names of his associates and a copy of the
resolution under which they were appointed,
together with the documents necessary for the
proper performance of its duties. He shall transmit
to the Council, copies of all propositions for
Fellowship in the College. He shall notify the
Fellows of all propositions for Fellowship and the
dates of the meeting of the Council at which the
proposition will' be acted upon, and he shall also
notify the Fellows of the names of all candidates
who have been recommended by the Council for
election by the College. He shall furnish certifi-
cates of Fellowship to newly-elected Fellows,
Associate Fellows, and Corresponding Members;
and perform all other duties appropriate to his
office, which may be imposed upon him by any
ordinance or resolution of the College.
At the stated meeting in December, he- shall
present a report containing a statement of the
Fellowship of the College, of the attendance at
the meetings, and such other information as may
be deemed proper, together with an estimate of
the expanses of his office for the ensuing year.
7. The Recorder shall keep full and accurate
minutes of the scientific proceedings of the College,
and enter them, after approval, in a book provided
for the purpose. He shall take charge of all
scientific papers read and intended for publication.
He shall record all verbal communications on
professional subjects, and prepare a faithful
summary of the discussions thereon; such papers
and record of communications and remarks, he
shall, under the direction of the Committee of
Publication, and after revision by their authors,
arrange and prepare for publication in the Trans-
actions of the College. lie shall be, ex officio, a
member of the Committee of Publication.
8. The Honorary Librarian shall be ex officio a
member of the Library Committee, and under its
authority he shall have a general superintendence
of the Library and direction of all persons em-
1. The Council shall consist of the President,
Vice-President, Censors, Secretary, Treasurer, the
Honorary Librarian, the Recorder, and the Chair-
men of the Standing Committees, with six Coun-
cillors. Of the Councillors, two shall be annually
elected at the stated meeting in January, to serve
for three years; and they shall be ineligible for
re-election until they have been out of office for a
2. The Council shall hold a stated monthly
meeting on a day not less than one week preced-
ing the stated monthly meeting of the College.
It shall be presided over by the President of the
College, and the Secretary, acting as Clerk, shall
keep correct minutes of its proceedings, and
report its conclusions to the College. It shall
receive and consider all information in reference
to qualifications of persons proposed for Fellow-
ship. All communications made to the Council
in reference thereto shall be considered as strictly
confidential. At each stated monthly meeting of
the Council, the members shall vote separately by
ballot for each candidate for Fellowship, whose
name shall have been reported by the Secretary
of the College, as having been submitted to the
Fellows in accordance with the By-laws ; the votes
of seven members of the Council shall be requisite
for, and three negative votes shall preclude from
favorable recommendation to the College. The
Council shall, however, have power at its discre-
tion to postpone until its next stated meeting final
action upon a proposition for Fellowship. It
shall at once give notice thereof to the signers of
the proposition for Fellowship upon which action
has been postponed, together with such further
information as it may deem proper. Any two
of the proponents may withdraw their proposition
at any time before final action by the Council.
3. After the limit of Associate Fellowship is
reached, the Secretary of the College shall file
away, in the order of their reception, all proposi-
tions for Associate Fellowship ; and when a
vacancy occurs, he shall notify the Council and
the Fellows of the names of the candidates, as
4. The Council shall have general supervision
of the affairs of the College, consider all ques-
tions that may be referred to it, and report to the
College, in writing, its decision thereon. It shall
submit to the College, from time to time, such sug-
gestions as it shall believe adapted to promote the
objects for which the College was instituted.
5. The Council may at any time call a special
meeting of the College.
6. The place of any Fellow elected to the
Council shall be considered vacant, should he at
any time be elected to another office making him,
ex officio, a member of the Council, and shall be
filled by special election, as hereinbefore provided.
The holding of an office constituting any Fellow
a member of the Council shall preclude his elec-
tion as a Councillor.
1. The Stated Meetings of the College shall he
held on the first Wednesday in every month,
excepting July and August, at eight o'clock, P. M.
At this hour, or as soon thereafter as a quorum,
which shall consist of seven Fellows, shall have
assembled, the meeting shall be organized.
2. The Order of business shall be —
] st. The reading of the minutes of the last
stated and special meetings for ap-
proval or correction.
2d. Introduction of newly-elected Fellows.
3d. Announcement of additions to the Library
and to the Museum.
4th. Written communications.
5th. Verbal communications.
8th. Report of the Council and of Com-
9th. Stated business; deferred business ; new
3. At the stated meeting in December, the
President shall deliver his annual address ; the
Treasurer, the Secretary, and all Standing Com-
mittees, except the Committee on Finance, shall
present their annual reports. Each of them, ex-
cepting the Committees on the Mutter Museum and
the "William F. Jenks prize, shall present an esti-
mate of its expenses for the ensuing year. Nomi-
nations of Officers, Councillors, Honorary Libra-
rian, Recorder, and members of elective Standing
Committees for the following year, shall be made.
4. At the stated meeting in January, the
Committee on Finance shall present its annual
report; the annual appropriations shall be made;
the Officers and members of the elective Com-
mittees of the College for the current year, shall
be balloted for.
5. At the stated meeting in February, the
President shall appoint the Committee on Finance,
the Committee on Entertainments, and every third
year the William F. Jenks Prize Committee.
6. At the stated meeting in March, of every third
year, after 1864, a lecturer on Surgical Pathology
shall be nominated and appointed.
7. No business shall be transacted at any special
meeting except that for which it was called.
8. At the stated meetings, except during the
consideration of the private business of the College,
strangers may be present on the invitation of a
Fellow who shall present them to the President,
and shall be held responsible for the character and
professional standing of the persons introduced
1. The Standing Committees of the College
shall be : —
I. A Committee of Publication.
II. A Library Committee
III. A Committee on the Mutter Museum.
IV. A Hall Committee.
V. A Committee on the Directory for Nurses.
VI. A Committee on Finance.
VII. A Committee on the W. F. Jenks Prize.
VIII. A Committee on Entertainments.
2. The first, third, fifth, sixth and seventh of
the said Committees shall consist each of three
Fellows; the eighth, of four fellows; and the
second and fourth, each of five Fellows.
3. All business of the Standing Committees,
requiring action by the College, shall first be laid
before the Council.
COMMITTEE OF PUBLICATION.
1. It shall be the duty of the Committee of
Publication to revise and issue, from time to
time, Transactions of the College, which shall
comprise, as far as the Committee may deem
expedient : 1. Written communications ; 2.
Verbal communications ; and, 3. An abstract of
2. ISTo paper read before the College shall be
published elsewhere than in the Transactions
without the consent of the College, or of the
Committee of Publication.
3. The Transactions, as soon as published, shall
be distributed by the Secretary of the College,
without charge, to each of the Fellows, Associate
Fellows, and Corresponding Members.
4. The Committee of Publication shall present
to the College at the stated meeting in December,
an annual report, with a statement of its receipts
and expenditures, and an estimate of its expenses
for the ensuing year.
THE LIBRARY COMMITTEE.
1. The Library Committee shall have charge
of the Library, and shall report upon its condi-
tion, annually, at the stated meeting in December,
and at the same time submit an estimate of its
expenses for the ensuing year.
2. The Library Committee annually in January
shall appoint an Assistant Librarian, and report
the appointment to the College. The Assistant
Librarian shall act as secretary of the Library
Committee, and shall perform all duties pertaining
to his office under the direction of the Library
Committee and the Honorary Librarian. He shall
keep a record of the titles of all books purchased
for the Library, or presented to it, together with
the names of the donors, and transmit a copy of
the same to the Secretary of the College for
presentation at its stated meetings. He shall duly
acknowledge all gifts to the Library. He shall be
on duty daily (Sundays and other legal holidays
excepted) between such hours as the Library
Committee may prescribe, and shall issue and
receive books in accordance with the regulations
embraced in Chapter VIE. He shall receive such
salary as the College may from time to time
3. The Library Committee and the Committee
on the Directory for Nurses in joint meeting, shall
appoint annually in January a person to act as
Assistant in the Library and as Secretary of the
Directory for Nurses.
RULES FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE LIBRARY.
1. Fellows shall be allowed to take books out
of the Library with such exceptions and under
such rules as from time to time the Library Com-
mittee may make : Provided, that no Fellow shall
be allowed to take out at any one time more than
one folio or quarto, or three octavos, duodecimos,
or bound periodicals without special permission,
as hereinafter stated; or to retain the same without
renewal for a longer period than two weeks. The
Assistant Librarian shall register the titles of the
books taken out, with the name of the Fellow to
whom loaned, and the dates at which they were
taken out and returned.
2. Special permission to take out more than the
above mentioned number of books may be granted
upon a written application approved by two mem-
bers of the Library Committee.
3. If any Fellow retain the book or books bor-
rowed by him longer than two weeks, without
renewal, he shall pay a fine of twenty cents for
every week each volume is so retained.
4. No Fellow shall be allowed to use the Library
while any fines due by him remain unpaid.
5. If a book be lost by a Fellow, he shall either
replace it, or pay the value thereof, or of the set
of books to which it belongs, as the Library Com-
mittee may decide.
6. All books shall be returned to the Library
before the stated meeting in November, at the
discretion of the Library Committee, to enable the
Committee to make its annual report.
7. The Assistant Librarian, as soon as practi-
cable after the receipt of the current journals and
new publications, shall make such arrangements
as will enable the Fellows to consult them.
8. Visitors introduced by Fellows shall be al-
lowed to consult books in the Library rooms, in
accordance with the rules adopted from time to
time by the College or the Library Committee.
COMMITTEE ON THE MUTTER MUSEUM.
1. The Committee on the Mutter Museum shall
have a general supervision of the Museum, and
shall take all such measures as may he deemed
expedient for its preservation and increase.
2. " Free access to the Museum and prepara-
tions shall he given to every regular graduate in
medicine, and to every student of medicine, with-
out charge or fee, subject to such regulations as
the College may deem necessary for the preserva-
tion of order, and that other persons may he ad-
mitted on the presentation of a ticket bearing upon
it the signature of any Fellow of the College."
" Proper accommodations, such as chairs, tables,
pen, ink, and paper, shall always be present in the
Museum for those who may be inclined to draw
or describe any of the preparations."
" No one shall be permitted to remove from the
College Building, except for necessary repairs or
preparation, any article belonging to the said
Mutter Museum, after the same shall have been
3. The Chairman of the Committee shall receive
the income of the trust fund presented to the Col-
lege by Dr. T. D. Mutter; which income shall be
disbursed by the Committee, under the supervision
of the College, in accordance with the agreement
made between the College and Dr. Mutter, as
recited in the deed of trust to the Pennsylvania
Company for Insurances on Lives and Granting
Annuities, executed by Dr. Mutter and wife,
December the eleventh, A. D. 1858, namely :
" 1. For the salary of a Curator $300 per annum.
2. For the salary of a Lecturer $200 per annum.
And the remainder of said income to the prepar-
ing, fitting up, keeping in order, increasing, and
insuring of pathological and anatomical prepara-
tions and specimens, illustrative of surgery and
medicine, drawings, models, casts, and other like
matters, which arc intended to form the Museum."
4. The Committee shall report, annually, to the
College, at the stated meeting in December, the
condition of the Museum ; and from time to time
shall suggest such measures as may be considered
advisable for increasing the value and usefulness
of the collection. And semi-annually, at the
stated meetings in December and June, the Com-
mittee shall render to the College an account of
all its expenditures on account of the Museum
5. A Curator shall be appointed annually in the
month of February, on the nomination of the
Committee of the Mutter Museum, who shall not be
limited, in the choice, to Fellows of the College.
6. The Curator shall have general charge of the
Mutter Museum, and shall prepare, or have pre-
pared, such pathological specimens and perform
such other duties as the Committee may direct.
He shall label and keep a correct catalogue of
articles presented to the Museum, with the name
of the donor conspicuously attached to each, to-
gether with, as far as practicable, a record of its
history ; and shall report the new donations at
each stated meeting of the College. He shall
attend at the Museum, for the accommodation of
visitors and students, on such days and at such
hours in every week as may be directed by the
Committee on the Mutter Museum. On such
occasions he shall remove and replace specimens,
afford all necessary information to students and
other visitors-, and preserve order among those in
The Curator shall receive for his services the
sum of $300, annually, to be paid to him, by the
Chairman of the Committee on the Mutter
Museum, out of the income of the trust fund
presented to the College by Dr. Mutter.
No Professor, or Lecturer, on Surgery, or
Medicine, shall be eligible as Curator.
7. It shall be the duty of the Committee to
nominate, at the stated meeting in March of
every third year after 1864, a person to deliver a
course of at least ten lectures on some subject
connected with surgical pathology: Provided, that
the same Lecturer shall not be nominated twice
8. The Committee shall determine the time for
the delivery and the duration of the course ; and
make all proper arrangements for attaining the
objects of the Lectureship.
9. The lectures shall be delivered within the
College Building; and the Lecturer shall have the
use of the Museum for the purpose of illustrating
10. The Lecturer shall he permitted to charge
persons, not Fellows of the College, attending his
lectures a fee of five to ten dollars, as he may
himself determine. He shall, however, distribute
" ten gratuitous tickets to poor but well educated
and moral students of regular medicine, whom he
may select at will."
11. The Committee shall see that the lectures
are delivered in accordance with the terms of the
agreement between the College and Dr. Mutter,
and that each Fellow is supplied with a ticket of
12. Upon the favorable report of the Committee,
the College shall direct an order to be drawn upon
the Chairman of the Committee on the Mutter
Museum in favor of said Lecturer for the sum of
$200, to be paid out of the income of the trust
fund presented to the College by Dr. Mutter.
13. Whenever lectures so delivered are pub-
lished, their title shall indicate distinctly that they
are the " Mutter Lectures," delivered under the
auspices of the College of Physicians of Phila-
delphia, and the Lecturer shall deposit a copy
thereof in the Library of the College within thirty
days after their publication.
1. The Hall Committee shall have charge of
the Hall of the College, and of all pro] >erty therein
not otherwise provided for, subject to such in-
structions as the College may give.
2. Under general instructions of the College, it
shall have power to grant the use of the apart-
ments in the Hall for scientific, literary, and
philanthropic purposes, upon such conditions as
the Committee may deem satisfactory. Provided.,
however, that the occupation of such apartments
shall not interfere with the convenience of the
3. The Hall Committee shall employ a Door-
keeper for the Hall, who shall receive specimens
for the Mutter Museum, act as Messenger, and
perform all other duties that may be required of
him in the general service of the College.
4. The Hall Committee shall present to the
College, at the stated meeting in December, an-
nually, a report of its proceedings, and of the
condition of the Hall, and at the same time submit
an estimate of the sum required for its care and
preservation for the ensuing year,
COMMITTEE ON THE DIRECTORY FOR NURSES.
1. The Committee on the Directory for Nurses
shall have charge of the Directory, and make all
rules necessary for its management.
2. It shall report annually in December its pro-
ceedings, with a statement of the progress and
condition of the Directory, including its receipts
and expenditures, and pay to the Treasurer of the
College, for the use of the Library, such portion
of its receipts as the Committee shall consider
3. The Committee on the Directory for Nurses
and the Library Committee in joint meeting shall
appoint annually, in January, a person to act as
Assistant in the Library and as Secretary of the
Directory for Nurses.
COMMITTEE ON FINANCE.
1. The President annually, in February, shall
appoint three Fellows, who, with the President
and Treasurer, ex officio, shall constitute the Com-
mittee on Finance.
2. Annually in December it shall audit the ac-
counts of the Treasurer and of the Standing Com-
mittees, and report the result at the stated meeting
3. All appropriations asked for in the annual
reports of the Standing Committees shall be sub-
mitted to the Committee on Finance for examina-
tion, and report in January.
4. No Officer or Committee shall incur any
indebtedness for which an appropriation has not
been previously made.
THE WILLIAM F. .JENKS PRIZE COMMITTEE.
The William F. Jenks Prize Committee shall
consist of three Fellows, who shall serve for three
years. It shall be appointed by the President,
with the advice and consent of the Trustees of
the William F. Jenks Memorial Fund, at the
stated meeting in February, and every three years
thereafter. It shall have full power to arrange
all details connected with the selection of subjects
for dissertation and reward, and also for awarding
of prizes as provided for in the deed of trust.
COMMITTEE ON ENTERTAINMENTS.
The President annually, in February, shall ap-
point four Fellows, who, with the President, ex
officio, shall constitute the Committee on Enter-
tainments. It shall have charge of all arrange-
ments relating to entertainments ordered by the
College, the expenses of which shall be defrayed
out of the income of the Weir Mitchell Entertain-
NEGLECT OF DUTY.
1. Any Officer, Member of the Council, or
Member of a Standing Committee, who shall
neglect the discharge of his duty during twelve
months in succession, except on account of ill
health or absence from the city, shall be disquali-
fied for re-election. And it shall be the duty of
the Clerk of the Council and of the Chairman of
the Standing Committees to report the delinquents
of the preceding year to the College immediately
before each annual election.
1. The President shall appoint all Special Com-
mittees, unless it be otherwise ordered by the
2. The first named Fellow shall be the Chair-
man of the Committee, and shall see that its duties
are duly performed.
3. Special Committees shall report at the stated
meeting immediately succeeding their appoint-
ment, unless it be otherwise determined by a reso-
lution or a law of the College. Their reports
shall be made in writing, and signed by a majority
of the Committee.
RULES OF ORDER.
1. No questions shall be considered open for dis-
cussion, except when brought forward by motion
duly made and seconded, and then distinctly stated
by the presiding officer. The name of the mover
of each motion must be entered upon the minutes.
2. Every motion shall be reduced to writing by
the mover, if the presiding officer or any Fellow
request the same.
3. Any Fellow may call for the division of a
question, provided it comprehend more than one
distinct proposition. A motion to strike out and
insert shall be deemed indivisible ; but a motion
to strike out shall not preclude either amendment
or a motion to strike out and insert.
4. The mover, with the consent of the seconder,
may withdraw any motion previously to its amend-
ment, commitment, or to the question upon its final
passage being put by the presiding officer.
5. When a Fellow speaks, he shall stand up,
addressing himself to the presiding officer, and
confining himself strictly to the question under
6. No Fellow shall lie interrupted while speak-
ing, except by a call to order.
CHAPTER XVII— DISCIPLINE.
Sec. 1. Charges of conduct unbecoming a Member may be made against
either a Fellow, an Associate Fellow or a Corresponding Member of the
College. Such charges shall be in writing and signed by at least one Fellow,
and shall he made directly to the Ceusors. The charges shall be investi-
gated by the Censors in whatever manner they may deem wise ; after which
they may in their discretion report the result of their investigation to the
College, with or without a recommendation of discipline. Prodded, that no
report shall be made to the College without the accused having had an
opportunity to appear before the Censors and defend himself from the
Sec. 2. The College, after receiving the report of the Censors, may dis-
cipline the accused Fellow, Associate Fellow or Corresponding Member, by
censure, by suspension or by expulsion.
Sec. 3. Motions touching questions of discipline shall be voted upon by
ballot. A motion to censure shall be adopted it a majority of the votes cast
be affirmative. A motion to suspend or to expel shall be adopted if two-
thirds of the votes cast be affirmative, not less than twenty Fellows voting ;
but no motion to expel shall be acted upon at the same meeting at which it
has been introduced, nor unless due notice thereof has been given in the call
lor the meeting at which action is to be taken upon said proposition.
Sec. 4. Suspension shall, during its continuance, deprive the person sus-
jended of all the privileges of membership. In case of expulsion all the
ights of membership pertaining to the person expelled shall vest in the Col-
Sec. 5. In any case in which the Censors recommend discipline the ac-
used shall be informed of the recommendation, and shall be offered an
ppoitunity to make before the College a statement, oral or written, in regard
o the same ; but he shall be required to withdraw from the meeting before
he College proceeds to deliberate and act upon his case.
Sec. 6. Any Fellow, Associate Fellow or Corresponding Member who is
nder suspension may be restored by the College, on the recommendation of I lie
ensors. by a two-thirds vote, not less then twenty Fellows voting.
To change the numbers of succeeding Chapters to XVIII, XIX and XX.
7. The presiding officer shall decide all questions
of order- unless an appeal be made to the College;
in which case the Fellow appealing shall first state
his reasons for the appeal, and then the presiding
officer his reasons in support of his decision; but
no further debate shall be allowed.
8. No Fellow shall be allowed to speak more
than twice upon the same question, without per-
mission being granted him by the College.
9. Whilst a question is under consideration, no
motion shall be received excepting to adjourn, to
lay the subject upon the table, to postpone, to refer
to a committee, or to amend; which several mo-
tions shall have precedence in the order in which
they are named.
10. A motion for adjournment shall always be
in order, except when the College is voting on
another question, or while a Fellow is speaking.
11. A motion to amend an amendment is in
order, but not one to amend an amendment to the
amendment. The question on the amendment
shall be decided before that on the main question.
12. No motion shall be received to postpone the
motion under discussion for the purpose of intro-
ducing a substitute.
13. A motion for postponement shall preclude
commitment; and one for commitment shall pre-
clude amendment, also, a decision on the original
14. Motions for postponement, to lay upon the
table, and for adjournment, shall always be deter-
mined without debate.
15. A motion which has been negatived, cannot
be again brought forward at the same meeting,
excepting upon a motion to reconsider.
16. No question shall be reconsidered, excepting
on the motion of two Fellows who voted with the
majority when the question was decided; and un-
less submitted at the meeting at which the same
has been discussed.
17. When a blank is to be filled, the question
shall be first taken on the largest sum, greatest
number, and remotest period.
18. Two Fellows may demand the yeas and nays
on any question which is not required to be decided
by ballot, and have them entered upon the minutes.
The presiding officer in such cases shall always
19. ~No order shall be taken upon the report of
any special committee, excepting to refer it back to
the committee, to lay it upon the table, or to obtain
the sense of the College in relation to the resolu-
tions appended thereto.
20. The presiding officer shall not discuss any
subject while in the chair, but may assign his
reasons on deciding a question of order. He shall
have no vote excepting on a ballot, or upon a call
for the yeas and nays.
CODE OF MEDICAL ETHICS.
OF THE DUTIES OF PHYSICIANS TO THEIR PATIENTS,
AND OF THE OBLIGATIONS OF PATIENTS TO THEIR
Art. I. — Duties of physicians to their patients.
§ 1. A physician should not only be ever ready
to obey the calls of the sick, but his mind ought
also to be imbued with the greatness of his mission
and the responsibility he habitually incurs in its
discharge. Those obligations are the more deep
and enduring, because there is no tribunal other
than his own conscience to adjudge penalties for
carelessness or neglect. Physicians should, there-
fore, minister to the sick with due impressions of
the importance of their office ; reflecting that the
ease, the health, and the lives of those committed
to their charge, depend on their skill, attention,
and fidelity. They should study, also, in their
deportment, so to unite tenderness with firmness,
and condescension with authority, as to inspire the
minds of their patients with gratitude, respect and
§ 2. Every case committed to the charge of a
physician should be treated with attention, steadi-
ness, and humanity. Reasonable indulgence should
be granted to the mental imbecility and caprices
of the sick. Secrecy and delicacy, when required
by peculiar circumstances, should be strictly ob-
served; and the familiar and confidential inter-
course to which physicians are admitted in their
professional visits, should be used with discretion,
and with the most scrupulous regard to fidelity
and honor. The obligation of secrecy extends
beyond the period of professional services; none
of the privacies of personal and domestic life, no
infirmity of disposition or flaw of character ob-
served during professional attendance should ever
be divulged by the physician except when he is
imperatively required to do so. The force and
necessity of this obligation are indeed so great that
professional men have, under certain circumstan-
ces, been protected in their observance of secrecy
by courts of justice.
§ 3. Frequent visits to the sick are in general
requisite, since they enable the physician to arrive
at a more perfect knowledge of the disease — to
meet promptly every change which may occur, and
also tend to preserve the confidence of the patient.
But unnecessary visits are to be avoided, as they
give useless anxiety to the patient, tend to diminish
the authority of the physician, and render him
liable to be suspected of interested motives.
§ 4. A physician should not be forward to make
gloomy prognostications, because they savor of
empiricism, by magnifying the importance of his
Bervices in the treatment or cure of the disease.
But he should not fail, on proper occasions, to
give to the friends of the patient timely notice of
clanger when it really occurs; and even to the
patient himself, if absolutely necessary. This
office, however, is so peculiarly alarming' when
executed by him, that it ought to be declined
whenever it can be assigned to any other person
of sufficient judgment and delicacy. For the
physician should be the minister of hope and
comfort to the sick; that, by such cordials to the
drooping spirit, he may smooth the bed of death,
revive expiring life, and counteract the depressing
influence of those maladies which often disturb
the tranquillity of the most resigned in their last
moments. The life of a sick person can be
shortened, not only by the acts, but also by the
words or the manner of a physician. It is, there-
fore, a sacred duty to guard himself carefully in
this respect, and to avoid all things which have a
tendency to discourage the patient and to depress
§ 5. A physician ought not to abandon a patient
because the case is deemed incurable ; for his at-
tendance may continue to be highly useful to the^
patient, and comforting to the relatives around
him, even in the last period of a fatal malady, by
alleviating pain and other symptoms, and by
soothing mental anguish. To decline attendance,
under such circumstances, would be sacrificing to
fanciful delicacy and mistaken liberality, that
moral duty, which is independent of, and far
superior to, all pecuniary consideration,
§ 6. Consultations should be promoted in diffi-
cult or protraeted cases, as they give rise to confi-
dence, energy, and more enlarged views in practice.
§ 7. The opportunity which a physician not
unfrequently enjoys of promoting and strengthen-
ing the good resolutions of his patients, suffering
under the consequences of vicious conduct, ought
never to be neglected. His counsels, or even
remonstrances, will give satisfaction, not offence,
if they be proffered with politeness, and evince a
genuine love of virtue, accompanied by a sincere
interest in the welfare of the person to whom they
Art. II. — Obligations of patients to their physicians.
§ 1. The members of the medical profession, upon
whom is enjoined the performance of so many iin-
portantand arduous duties towards the community,
and who are required to make so many sacrifices of
comfort, ease, and health, for the welfare of those
who avail themselves of their services,certainly have
a right to expect and require, that their patients
should entertain a just sense of the duties which
they owe to their medical attendants.
§ 2. The first duty of a, patient is to select as his
medical adviser one who has received a regular pro-
fessional education. In no trade or occupation do
mankind rely on the skill of an untaught artist; and
in medicine, confessedly the most difficult and intri-
cate of the sciences, the world ought not to suppose
that knowledge is intuitive.
§ 3. Patients should prefer a physician whose
habits of life are regular, and who is not devoted to
company, pleasure, or to any pursuit incompatible
with his professional obligations. A patient should,
also, confide the care of himself and family, as much
as possible, to one physician; for a medical man who
has become acquainted with the peculiarities of con-
stitution, habits, and predispositions of those he at-
tends, is more likely to be successful in his treat-
ment than one who does not possess that knowledge.
A patient who has thus selected his physician,
should always apply for advice in what may appear
to him trivial cases, for the most fatal results often
supervene on the slightest accidents. It is of still
more importance that he should appty for assistance
in the forming stage of violent diseases ; it is to a
neglect of this precept that medicine owes much of
the uncertainty and imperfection with which it has
§ 4. Patients should faithfully and unreservedly
communicate to their physician the supposed cause
of their disease. This is the more important, as
many diseases of a mental origin simulate those
depending on external causes, and yet are only to
be cured by ministering to the mind diseased. A
patient should never be afraid of thus making his
physician his friend and adviser ; he should always
bear in mind that a medical man is under the
strongest obligations of secrecy. Even the female
sex should never allow feelings of shame or deli-
cacy to prevent their disclosing the seat, symptoms,
and causes of complaints peculiar to them. How-
ever commendable a modest reserve may be in the
common occurrences of life, its strict observance
in medicine is often attended with the most serious
consequences, and a patient may sink under a pain-
ful and loathsome disease, which might have been
readily prevented had timely intimation been given
to the physician.
§ 5. A patient should never weary his physician
with a tedious detail of events or matters not
appertaining to his disease. Even as relates to his
actual symptoms, he will convey much more real
information by giving clear answers to interrog-
atories, than by the most minute account of his
own framing. Neither should he obtrude upon
his physician the details of his business nor the
history of his family concerns.
§ 6. The obedience of a patient to the prescrip-
tions of his physician should be prompt and
implicit. He should never permit his own crude
opinions as to their fitness to influence his attention
to them. A failure in one particular may render
an otherwise judicious treatment dangerous, and
even fatal. Tins remark is equally applicable to
diet, drink, and exercise. As patients become con-
valescent, they are very apt to suppose that the
rules prescribed for them may be disregarded, and
the consequence, but too often, is a relapse.
Patients should never allow themselves to be per-
suaded to take any medicine whatever, that may
be recommended to them by the self-constituted
doctors and doctresses who are so frequently met
with, and who pretend to possess infallible reme-
dies for the cure of every disease. However simple
some of their prescriptions may appear to be, it
often happens that they are productive of much
mischief, and in all cases they are injurious, by con-
travening the plan of treatment adopted by the
§ 7. A patient should, if possible, avoid even
the friendly visits of a physician who is not attend-
ing him — and when he does receive them, he
should never converse on the subject of his disease,
as an observation may be made, without any in-
tention of interference, which may destroy his
confidence in the course he is pursuing, and in-
duce him to neglect the directions prescribed to
him. A patient should never send for a consulting
physician without the express consent of his own
medical attendant. It is of great importance that
physicians should act in concert; for, although
their modes of treatment may be attended with
equal success when employed singly, yet conjointly
they are very likely to be productive of disastrous
§ 8. When a patient wishes to dismiss his physi-
cian, justice and common courtesy require that he
should declare his reasons for so doing.
§ 9. Patients should always, when practicable,
send for their physician in the morning, before his
usual hour of going out ; for, by being early aware
of the visits he has to pay during the day, the
physician is able to apportion his time in such a
manner as to prevent an interference of engage-
ments. Patients should also avoid calling on
their medical adviser unnecessarily during the
hours devoted to meals or sleep. They should
always he in readiness to receive the visits of their
physician, as the detention of a few minutes is
often of serious inconvenience to him.
§ 10. A patient should after his recovery, enter-
tain a just and enduring sense of the value of the
services rendered him by his physician ; for those
are of such a character, that no mere pecuniary
acknowledgment can repay or cancel them.
OF THE DUTIES OF PHYSICIANS TO EACH OTHER, AND
TO THE PROFESSION AT LARGE.
Art, I. — Duties for the support of prof essional char-
§ 1. Every individual, on entering the profession
as he becomes thereby entitled to all its privileges
and immunities, incurs an obligation to exert his
best abilities to maintain its dignity and honor, to
exalt its standing, and to extend the bounds of
its usefulness. He should, therefore, observe strictly
such laws as arc instituted for the government of
its members ; should avoid all contumelious and
sarcastic remarks relative to the faculty as a body ;
and while, by unwearied diligence, he resorts to
every honorable means of enriching the science,
he should entertain a due respect for his seniors
who have, by. their labors brought it to the eleva-
ted condition in which he finds it.
§ 2. It is not in accord with the interests of the
public or the honor of the profession that any phy-
sician or medical teacher should examine or sign
diplomas or certificates of proficiency for, or other-
wise be specially concerned with, the graduation of
persons whom they have good reasons to believe
intend to support and practice any exclusive and
irregular system of medicine.
§ 3. There is no profession, from the members of
which greater purity of character, and a higher
standard of moral excellence are required than the
medical ; and to attain such eminence is a duty
every physician owes alike to his profession and to
his patients. It is due to the latter, as without it
he cannot command their respect and confidence,
and to both, because no scientific attainments can
compensate for the want of correct moral principles.
It is also incumbent upon the faculty to be temper-
ate in all things, for the practice of physic requires
the unremitting exercise of a clear and vigorous
understanding ; and, on emergencies, for which no
professional man should be unprepared, a steady
hand, an acute eye, and an unclouded head may be
essential to the well-being, and even to the life, of
§ 4. It is derogatory to the dignity of the profes-
sion to resort to public advertisements, or private
cards, or handbills, inviting the attention of indi-
viduals affected with particular diseases — publicly
offering advice and medicine to the poor gratis, or
promising radical cnres; or to publish cases and
operations in the daily prints, or suffer such publi-
cations to be made ; to invite laymen to be present
at operations, to boast of cures and remedies, to ad-
duce certificates of skill and success, or to perform
any other similar acts. These are the ordinary
practices of empirics, and are highly reprehensible
in a regular physician.
§ 5. Equally derogatory to professional character
is it for a physician to hold a patent for any sur-
gical instrument or medicine ; or to dispense a
secret nostrum, whether it be the composition or
exclusive property of himself or of others. For,
if such nostrum be of real efficacy, any conceal-
ment regarding it is inconsistent with beneficenc e
and professional liberality; and if mystery alone
give it value and importance, such craft implies
either disgraceful ignorance or fraudulent avarice.
It is also reprehensible for physicians to give cer-
tificates attesting the efficacy of patent or secret
medicines, or in any way to promote the use of
Art. II. — Professional services of physicians to
§ 1. All practitioners of medicine, their wives,
and their children while under the paternal care,
are entitled to the gratuitous services of any one
or more of the faculty residing near them, whose
assistance may be desired. A physician afflicted
with disease is usually an incompetent judge of
his own case ; and the natural anxiety and solici-
tude which he experiences at the sickness of a
wife, a child, or any one who, by the ties of con-
sanguinity, is rendered peculiarly dear to him,
tend to obscure his judgment, and produce
timidity and irresolution in his practice. Under
such circumstances, medical men are peculiarly
dependent upon each other, and kind offices and
professional aid should always be cheerfully and
gratuitously afforded. Visits ought not, however,
to be obtruded officiously; as such unasked
civility may give rise to embarrassment, or inter^
fere with that choice on which confidence depends.
But, if a distant member of the faculty, whose
circumstances are affluent, request attendance,
and an honorarium be offered, it should not be
declined ; for no pecuniary obligation ought to be
imposed, which the party receiving it would wish
not to incur.
Art. III. — Of the duties of 'physicians as respects
§ 1. The affairs of life, the pursuit of health,
and the various accidents and contingencies to
which a medical man is peculiarly exposed, some-
times require him temporarily to withdraw from
li is duties to his patients, and to request some of
his professional brethren to officiate for him.
Compliance with this request is an act of courtesy,
which should always be performed with the utmost
NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE
consideration for the interest and character of the
family physician, and when exercised for a short
period, all the pecuniary obligations for such ser-
vice should be awarded to him. But if a member
of the profession neglect his business in quest of
pleasure and amusement, he cannot be considered
as entitled to the advantages of the frequent and
long-continued exercise of this fraternal courtesy,
without awarding to the physician who officiates
the fees arising from the discharge of his pro-
In obstetrical and important surgical cases,
which give rise to unusual fatigue, anxiety, and
responsibility, it is just that the fees accruing
therefrom should be awarded to the physician
Art. IV. — Of the duties of physicians in regard to
§ 1. A regular medical education furnishes the
only presumptive evidence of professional abilities
and acquirements, and ought to be the only
acknowledged right of an individual to the exer-
cise and honors of his profession. Nevertheless,
as in consultations the good of the patient is the
sole object in view, and this is often dependent on
personal confidence, no intelligent regular practi-
tioner, who has a license to practise from some
medical board of known and acknowledged re-
spectability, recognized by the American Medical
Association, and who is in good moral and pro-
fessional standing in the place in which he resides,
should be fastidiously excluded from fellowship,
or his aid refused in- consultation, when it is
requested by the patient. But no one can be
considered as a regular practitioner or a fit asso-
ciate in consultation, Avhose practice is based on
an exclusive dogma, to the rejection of the accu-
mulated experience of the profession, and of the
aids actually furnished by anatomy, physiology,
pathology, and organic chemistry.
§ 2. In consultations, no rivalship or jealousy
should be indulged ; candor, probity, and all due
respect should be exercised towards the physician
having charge of the case.
§ 3. In consultations, the attending physician
should be the first to propose the necessary ques-
tions to the sick, after which the consulting
physician should have the opportunity to make
such further inquiries of the patient as may be
necessary to satisfy him of the true character of
the case. Both physicians should then retire to a
private place for deliberation ; and the one first in
attendance should communicate the directions
agreed upon to the patient or his friends, as well
as any opinions which it may be thought proper
to express. But no statement or discussion of it
should take place before the patient or his friends,
except in the presence of all the faculty attending,
and by their common consent; and no opinions or
'prognostications should be delivered which are not
the result of previous deliberation and concur-
§ 4. In consultations, the physician in attend-
ance should deliver his opinion first ; and when
there are several consulting, they should deliver
their opinions in the order in which they have
been called in. No decision, however, should
restrain the attending physician from making such
variations in the mode of treatment as any subse-
quent unexpected change in the character of the
case may demand. But such variation, and the
reasons for it, ought to be carefully detailed at the
next meeting in consultation. The same privilege
belongs also to the consulting physician if he is
sent for in an emergency, when the regular at-
tendant is out of the way, and similar explanations
must be made by him at the next consultation.
§ 5. The utmost punctuality should bo observed
in the visits of physicians when they are to hold
consultation together, and this is generally practi-
cable, for society has been considerate enough to
allow the plea of a professional engagement to
take precedence of all others, and to be an ample
reason for the relinquishment of any present occu-
pation. But as professional engagements may
sometimes interfere, and delay one of the parties,
the physician who first arrives should wait for his
associate a reasonable period, after which the con-
sultation should be considered as postponed to a
new appointment. If it be the attending physician
who is present, he will of course see the patient
and prescribe; but if it be the consulting one, he
should retire, except in case of emergency, or
when he has been called from a considerable dis-
tance, in which latter case he may examine the
patient, and give his opinion in writing, and under
seal, to be delivered to his associate.
§ 6. In consultations, theoretical discussions
should be avoided, as occasioning perplexity and
loss of time. For there may be much diversity
of opinion concerning speculative points, with
perfect agreement in those modes of practice which
are founded, not on hypothesis, but on experience
§ 7. All discussions in consultation should be
held as secret and confidential. Neither by words
nor manner should any of the parties to a consul-
tation assert or insinuate that any part of the
treatment pursued did not receive his assent.
The responsibility must be equally divided between
the medical attendants — they must equally share
the credit of success as well as the blame of
§ 8. Should an irreconcilable diversity of opinion
occur when several physicians are called upon to
consult together, the opinion of the majority
should be considered as decisive; but if the num-
bers be equal on each side, then the decision
should rest with the attending physician. It
may, moreover, sometimes happen that two phy-
sicians cannot agree in their views of the nature of
a case, and the treatment to be pursued. This is
a circumstance much to be deplored, and should
always be avoided, if possible, by mutual conces-
sions, as far as they can be justified by a conscien-
tious regard for the dictates of judgment. But
in the event of its occurrence, a third physician
should, if practicable, be called to act as umpire;
and, if circumstances prevent the adoption of this
course, it must be left to the patient to select the
physician in whom he is most willing to confide.
But, as every physician relies upon the rectitude
of his judgment, he should, when left in the
minority, politely and consistently retire from any
further deliberation in the consultation, or par-
ticipation in the management of the case.
§ 9. As circumstances sometimes occur to
render a special consultation desirable, when the
continued attendance of two physicians might be
objectionable to the patient, the member of the
faculty whose assistance is required in such cases
should sedulously guard against all future un-
solicited attendance. As such consultations re-
quire an extraordinary portion both of time and
attention, at least a double honorarium may be
§ 10. A physician who is called upon to consult,
should observe the most honorable and scrupulous
regard for the character and standing of the practi-
tioner in attendance; the practice of the latter, if
necessary, should be justified as for as it can be, con-
sistently with a conscientious regard for truth, and
no hint or insinuation should be thrown out which
could impair the confidence reposed in him, or
affect his reputation. The consulting physician
should also carefully refrain from any of those ex-
traordinary attentions or assiduities which are too
often practised by the dishonest for the base pur-
pose of gaining applause, or ingratiating them-
selves into the favor of families and individuals.
Art. V. — Duties of j>hysicians in cases of interfer-
§ 1. Medicine is a liberal profession, and those
admitted into its ranks should found their expec-
tations of practice upon the extent of their quali-
fications not on intrigue or artifice.
§ 2. A physician, in his intercourse with a patient
under the care of another practitioner, should ob-
serve the strictest caution and reserve. ~Ro
meddling inquiries should be made — no disingen-
uous hints given relative to the nature and treat-
ment of his disorder ; nor any course of conduct
pursued that may directly or indirectly tend to
diminish the trust reposed in the physician em-
§ 8. The same circumspection and reserve
should be observed when, from motives of busi-
ness or friendship, a physician is prompted to visit
an individual who is under the direction of an-
other practitioner. Indeed, such visits should be
avoided, except under peculiar circumstances;
and when they are made, no particular inquiries
should be instituted relative to the nature of the
disease, or the remedies employed, but the topics
of conversation should be as foreign to the case
as circumstances will admit.
§ 4. A physician ought not to take charge of or
prescribe for a patient who has recently been
under the care of another member of the faculty
in the same illness, except in cases of sudden em-
ergency, or in consultation with the physician
previously in attendance, or when the latter has
relinquished the case, or been regularly notified
that his services are no longer desired. Under
such circumstances, no unjust and illiberal in-
sinuations should be thrown out in relation to
the conduct or practice previously pursued, which
should be justified as far as candor and regard for
truth and probity will permit; for it often happens
that patients become dissatisfied when they do not
experience immediate relief, and, as many diseases
are naturally protracted, the want of success, in
the first stage of treatment, affords no evidence of
a lack of professional knowledge and skill.
§ 5. When a physician is called to an urgent
case, because the family attendant is not at hand,
he ought, unless his assistance in consultation be
desired, to resign the care of the patient to the
latter immediately on his arrival.
§ 6. It often happens in cases of sudden illness,
or of recent accidents and injury, owing to the
alarm and anxiety of friends, that a number of
physicians are simultaneously sent for. Under
these circumstances, courtesy should assign the
patient to the first who arrives, who should select
from those present any additional assistance that
he may deem necessary. In all such cases, how-
ever, the practitioner who officiates should request
the family physician, if there be one, to be called,
and, unless his further attendance be requested,
should resign the case to the latter on his arrival.
§ 7. When a physician is called to the patient
of another prac titioner, in consequence of the
sickness or absence of the latter, he ought, on the
return or recovery of the regular attendant, and
with the consent of the patient, to surrender the
[The expression, "patient of another practi-
tioner," is understood to mean a patient who may
have been under the charge of another practitioner
at the time of the attack of sickness, or departure
from home of the latter, or who may have called
for his attendance during his absence or sickness,
or in any other manner given it to be understood
that he regarded the said physician as his regular
§ 8. A physician, when visiting a sick person
in the country, may be desired to see a neighbor-
ing patient who is under the regular direction of
another physician, in consequence of some sudden
change or aggravation of symptoms. The con-
duct to be pursued on such an occasion is to give
advice adapted to present circumstances ; to inter-
fere no further than is absolutely necessary with
the general plan of treatment ; to assume no future
direction, unless it be expressly desired; and, in
this last case, to request an immediate consulta-
tion with the practitioner previously employed.
§ 9. A wealthy physician should not give advice
gratis to the affluent; because his doing so is an
injury to his professional brethren. The office of
a physician can never be supported as an exclu-
sively beneficent one; and it is defrauding, in
some degree, the common funds for its support,
when fees are dispensed with which might justly
§ 10. When a physician who has been engaged
to attend a case of midwifery is absent, and another
is sent for, if delivery is accomplished during the
attendance of the latter, he is entitled to the fee,
but should resign the patient to the practitioner
Art. VI— Of differences between physicians.
§ 1. Diversity of opinion and opposition of in-
terest may, in the medical as in other professions,
sometimes occasion controversy and even con-
tention. Whenever such cases unfortunately
occur, and cannot be immediately terminated,
they should be referred to the arbitration of a
sufficient number of physicians or a court-medical.
§ 2. As peculiar reserve must be maintained by
physicians towards the public, in regard to profes-
sional matters, and as there exist numerous points
in medical ethics and etiquette through which the
feelings of medical men may be painfully assailed
in their intercourse with each other, and which
cannot be understood or appreciated by general
society, neither the subject-matter of such differ-
ences nor the adjudication of the arbitrators should
be made public, as publicity in a case of this
nature may be personally injurious to the individ-
uals concerned, and can hardly fail to bring dis-
credit on the faculty.
Art. VII. — Of 'pecuniary acknowledgments.
Some general rules should be adopted by the
faculty, in every town or district, relative to
•pecuniary acknowledgments from their patients;
and it should be deemed a point of honor to ad-
here to these rules with as much uniformity as
varying circumstances will admit.
OF THE DUTIES OF THE PROFESSION TO THE PUBLIC,
AND OF THE OBLIGATIONS OF THE PUBLIC TO THE
Art. I. — Duties of the profession to the public.
§ 1. As good citizens, it is the duty of physicians
to be ever vigilant for the welfare of the com-
munity, and to bear their part in sustaining its
institutions and burdens: they should also be
ever ready to give counsel to the public in relation
to matters especially appertaining to their profes-
sion, as on subjects of medical police, public
hygiene, and legal medicine. It is their province
to enlighten the public in regard to quarantine
regulations; the location, arrangement, and diet-
aries of hospitals, asylums, schools, prisons, and
similar institutions; in relation to the medical
police of towns, as drainage, ventilation, etc. —
and in regard to measures for the prevention of
epidemic and contagious diseases; and when
pestilence prevails, it is their duty to face the
danger, and to continue their labors for the
alleviation of the suffering, even at the jeopardy
of their own lives.
§ 2. Medical men should also be always ready,
when called on by the legally constituted authori-
ties, to enlighten coroners' inquests and courts of
justice, on subjects strictly medical — such as in-
volve questions relating to sanity, legitimacy,
murder by poisons or other violent means, and in
regard to the various other subjects embraced in
the science of Medical Jurisprudence. But in
these cases, and especially where they are re-
quired to make a post-mortem examination, it is
just, in consequence of the time, labor, and skill
required, and the responsibility and risk they in-
cur, that the public should award them a proper
§ 3. There is no profession by the members of
which eleemosynary services are more liberally dis-
pensed than the medical, but justice requires that
some limits should be placed to the performance
of such good offices. Poverty, professional brother-
hood, and certain of the public duties referred to
in the first section of this article, should always
be recognized as presenting valid claims for gra-
tuitous services; but neither institutions endowed
by the public or by rich individuals, societies for
mutual benefit, for the insurance of lives or for
analogous purposes, nor any profession or occupa-
tion, can be admitted to possess such privilege.
Nor can it be justly expected of physicians to
furnish certificates of inability to serve on juries,
to perform militia duty, or to testify to the state
of health of persons wishing to insure their lives,
obtain pensions, or the like, without a pecuniary
acknowledgment. But to individuals in indigent
circumstances, such professional services should
always be cheerfully and freely accorded.
§ 4. It is the duty of physicians, who are fre-
quent witnesses of the enormities committed by
quackery, and the injury to health and even de-
struction of life caused by the use of quack medi-
cines, to enlighten the public on these subjects,
to expose the injuries sustained by the unwary
from the devices and pretensions of artful em-
pirics and impostors. Physicians ought to use
all the influence which they may possess, as
professors in Colleges of Pharmacy, and by ex-
ercising their option in regard to the shops to
which their prescriptions shall be sent, to discour-
age druggists and apothecaries from vending quack
or secret medicines, or from being in any way
engaged in their manufacture and sale.
Art. II. — Obligations of the public to i>hysicians.
The benefits accruing to the public, directly
and indirectly, from the active and unwearied be-
neficence of the profession, are so numerous and
important, that physicians are justly entitled to
the utmost consideration and respect from the
community. The public ought likewise to enter-
tain a just appreciation of medical qualifications;
to make a proper discrimination between true
science and the assumptions of ignorance and
empiricism — to afford every encouragement and
facility for the acquisition of medical education —
and no longer to allow the statute-books to exhibit
the anomaly of. exacting knowledge from physi-
cians, under a liability to heavy penalties, and of
making them obnoxious to punishment for resort-
ing to the only means of obtaining it.
REVISION AND ENACTMENT OF ORDINANCES AND
1. No new or amended Ordinance or By-law
(see the last clause of the Act of Incorporation)
shall be binding on the Officers or Fellows of the
College, unless it shall have been proposed in
writing and subscribed by five Fellows, at one
stated meeting, and enacted or passed at another,
after the intervention of at least thirty days ; and
unless it shall then be passed by a majority of
two-thirds, there being not less than twenty
2. Whenever a proposed alteration of the Ordi-
nances and By-laws is to be voted on at any meet-
ing of the College, said action shall be announced
by the Secretary in the notice for that meeting.
PRESIDENTS OF THE COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS,
Date of Election.
JOHN EEDMAN, M.D. 1787.
WILLIAM SHIPPEN, M.D. 1805.
ADAM KUHN, M.D. 1809.
THOMAS PARKE, M.D. 1818.
THOMAS C. JAMES, M.D.* 1835.
THOMAS T. HEWSON, M.D. 1835.
GEORGE B. WOOD, M.D. 1848.
W. S. W. RUSCHENBERGER, M.D. 1879.
ALFRED STILLE, M.D. 1882.
SAMUEL LEWIS, M.D.f 1884.
J. M. Da COSTA, M.D. 1884.
S. WEIR MITCHELL, M.D. 1886.
* Died four months after his election,
t Resigned on account of ill health.
OFFIOEES AND STANDING COMMITTEES OF THE
COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS, 1886.
President, S. Weir Mitchell, M.D.
Vice-President, John H. Packard, M.D.
Censors /Drs. Lewis Rodman, William Goodell, Alfred
' i Stills and Samuel Lewis.
Secretary, Isaac Norms, Jr., M.D.
Ti-easurcr, Charles Stewart Wurts, M.D.
Honorary Librarian, James H. Hutchinson, M.D.
Recorder, J. Ewing Mears, M.D.
To serve 3 years, Drs. R. A. Cleemann
and William Thomson.
" " 2 years, Drs. I. Minis Hays and
A. V. Meigs.
" " 1 year, Drs. S. W. Gross and
James C. Wilson.
Committee of Publication.
Drs. James H. Hutchinson, Robert P. Harris, A. V. Meigs, and the
Recorder, ex officio.
Drs. L Minis Hays, 8. W. Gross, Morris Longstreth,
George C. Harlan, and William Osler.
Committee on Mutter Museum.
Drs. William Hunt, John H. Brinton, and Morris Longstreth.
Drs. H. Y. Evans, T. Hewson Bache, J. Ewing Mears, Morris J. Lewis,
and W. Barton Hopkins.
Committee on Directory for Nurses.
Drs. W. W. Keen, Wharton SiNKLER, and James C. Wilson.
Committee on Finance.
Drs. W. S. W. Ruschenberger, Caspar Wister, John Ashhurst, Jr.,
and the President and Treasurer, ex officio.
William F. Jenks Prize Committee.
Drs. Ellwood Wilson, Robert P. Harris, and Theophilus Parvin.
Committee on Entertainments.
Drs. J. Ewing Mears, R. J. Dunglison, R. A. Cleemann, Louis Starr,
and the President, ex officio.
FELLOWS, ASSOCIATE FELLOWS, AND
COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS OF PHILADELPHIA.
* Denotes deceased Fellows,
t Resignation of Fellowship.
|| Forfeiture of Fellowship.
(N. R.) Non-resident Fellows.
* John Redman
* John Jones .
* John Morgan
* Wm. Shippen, Jr.
* Adam Kuhn
t Benjamin Rush .
* Gerardus Clarkson
* Samuel Duffield .
* Thomas Parke .
* James Hutchinson
* George Glentworth
* Abraham Chovet
* Andrew Ross
* William W. Smith
* James Hall
t William Clarkson
* William Currie .
* Benjamin Say
* Samuel Powel Griffitts
* Benjamin Duffield
|| John Morris
* John Carson
* John Foulke
|| Robert Harris
* .Nathan Dorsey .
* John R. B. Rodgers .
* Caspar Wistar, Jr.
* James Cunningham .
* Charles Moore
* Michael Leib
* John H. Gibbons
* Nicholas B. Waters .
* Benjamin Smith Barton
* Thomas Redman
* William Mcllvaine
* Plunket F. Gleutworth
* Hugh Hodge
|| Charles Caldwell
* John dimming .
* Thomas C. James
* William Annan .
t Adam Seybert
* William Boys
* Lewis J. Jardine
* Joseph P. Minnick
* Thomas T. Hewson .
* Nathaniel Chapman .
* Jos. Parrish
* Henry Neill
* Samuel Stewart .
* Joseph Woollens
* Isaac Cleaver
|| William P. C. Barton
t Edwin A. Atlee .
* John M. Moore .
* Samuel C. Hopkins
f John Wilson Moore .
* Samuel Emlen .
* John C. Otto
* Elijah Griffiths .
* John Ruan .
* Joseph Hartshorn e
* Henry Bond
* Robert M. Huston
* John Bell
* John K. Mitchell
* William Darrach
* William S. Coxe ....
|| Edward Y. Howell .
* Theophilus E. Beesley
* Caspar W. Pennock .
. . Sept.
* William W. Gerhard .
* John Rodman Paul
* D. Francis Condie
* Thomas D. Mutter
* Anthony Bournonville
W. S. W. Ruschenberger .
t Samuel Jackson .
* Robley Dunglison
* Jacob Randolph .
* Joseph Carson ,
< • . "
* Joseph Warrington
* James H. Bradford
* Thomas S. Kirkbride
* George W. Norris
* Francis West
t Benjamin D. Neill
|| Rush Vandyke .
* Edward Peace
* Frederick Turnpenny
* George McClellan
* William D. Brinckle
* William Pepper .
* Edward Ha Howell
* Samuel Colhoun .
* William H. Clapp
* Caspar Morris
* Carter N. Berkeley
* Joseph Peace
William S. Zantzinger (N".
* David C. Skerrett
|| W. Poyntell Johnson
t Henry H. Smith .
* Charles Evans
t Caspar Wistar
* Gotthilf Moehring
* Robert Bridges .
Meredith Clymer (1ST. R.)
John D. Griscom
* Thomas Dillard .
* Paul Beck Goddard
John J. Reese
* John Forsyth Meigs
t John Wiltbank .
* Henry S. Patterson
Lewis Rodman .
* George L. Newbold
* William Byrd Page
Charles R. King (N. R.)
* David II. Tucker
* T. R. Brinckle .
1 8 1 5
* Francis G. Smith, Jr
-Y- TlTrt*™! /"I CI, -,11
.v. ~\\t : 1 1 • „„ t> / 1 j_
-v. T , . 1 , . . ~ nr n».. ii
w More ton fetme .....
* SamuelJackson (Prof.)
Samuel Lewis .
Justus Dunott (N. R.)
John L. Ludlow
* John H. B. McClellan . . . .
* D. Paul Lai us
* William B. Wilson .
t Richard H. Townsend .
* Isaac Remington ....
* John B. Tuft
Edward H. Mayer (N. R.) .
William R, Bullock (N. R.)
* John B. Biddle ....
* Kobert P. Thomas
* Henry E. Drayton
* Bernard Henry
t James J. Levick
Joseph Leidy .
* Wilson Jewell
t William Keller
* William Mayburry
Alfred L. Kennedy
* Ellerslie Wallace .
* Thomas H. Yardley
Fitz William Sargent (N. R.)
Thomas Hewson Bache
* James V. Emlen .
* Joseph Hopkinson
Owen Jones Wister
* William H. Hooper
|| Henry Tiedemann
* Jonathan M. Allen
James L. Tyson (N". R.;
t James E. Rhoads .
Addinell Hewson .
* David Gilbert
f B. Howard Rand .
W. P. Tilden (K R.)
* G. Hermann Robinett
R. A. F. Penrose .
* Richard Clements .
William H. Gobrecht (N. R
Joseph Parrish (N. R.)
* William D. Stroud
Nathan L. Hatfield
Francis W. Lewis .
S. Weir Mitchell .
R. K. Smith (N. R.)
* William IST. Johnson
J. Cheston Morris .
* James Aitken Meigs
John H. Brinton .
* Alfred M. Slocum .
* Alfred Green .
* Samuel D. Gross
Walter F. Atlee
* Robert E. Rogers .
Tobias G. Richardson (N. R
* James M. Corse
John H. Packard .
J. M. Da Costa
t S. Henry Dickson .
D. Hayes Agnew .
William A. Hammond (N. 1
Charles S. Boker .
t William Hembel Taggart
* A. Owen Stille
* Augustine H. Fish
Henry D. Benner .
William R. Dunton
Charles Stewart Wurts
Thos. G. Morton .
William S. Forbes .
* C. Pendleton Tutt
Robert P. Harris .
* John F. Lamb
James H. Hutchinson
* Edward A. Page .
A. Douglass Hall .
Lewis D. Harlow .
* H. Lenox Hodge .
* Albert H. Smith .
* W. Lehman Wells
* David Burpee
Richard J. Dunglison
George R. Morehouse
|| W. Kent Gilbert .
* J. Hamilton Slack
John Ashhurst, Jr.
A. K. Smith, U. S. A. (N. R
Edward A. Spooner
William H. Granger
William H. Pancoast
* William M. King, U. S. N.
* J. M Leedom
R. X. Downs
E. L. Duer
S. P. Jones (X. R.)
Winthrop Sargent (X. R.)
E. B. Vandyck
f Hilborne West
Edward A. Smith (X. R.)
* Edward Livezey .
F. H. Getchell
* A. A. Henderson, U. S. X.
I! Robert Boiling
| John Le Conte
■ Lewis Taylor, IT. S. A.
Isaac I. Hayes (X. R.)
George C. Harlan
Horatio C. Wood, Jr. .
Samuel Ashhurst .
Isaac Xorris, Jr.
George Hamilton .
C. Percy La Roche (N. R.)
Edwin Scholfield .
William F. Xorris
J. J. Black (X. R.)
F. F. Maury .
R. B. Cruice .
Thomas B. Reed .
William Darrach .
I). F. Woods
C. Schaffer . . . .
Chas. H. Boardman (X. R. )
W. W. Keen .
H. Earnest Goodman .
Charles H. Thomas
R. R. Taylor
* Edward Rhoads .
* George Pepper
|| Jacob Roberts
Oliver A. Judson
George II . Horn
\ Horace Williams
D. Murray Cheston
Samuel B. Howell
|| James Cummiskey
William Pepper .
E. B. Shapleigh .
* Isaac Ray
* Ferdinand A. Hassler
* Thaddeus L. Leavitt .
Samuel W. Gross .
Thomas J. Yarrow
J. Ewing Mears
Horace Y. Evans .
T. Hollingsworth Andrews
Jos G. Richardson
* Horace Binney Hare .
* John S. Parry
* William S. Ilalsey
* Frederic W. LeM is
* William B. Corbitt
Henry S. Schell
* Henry R. Silliman
* John C. Norris
John M. Adler
* Francis G. Smyth .
C. H. Burnett
L. J. Deal (N. R )
W. H. Ford .
E. B. Gardette
. Jan. I860
. April, "
. July, "
. Jan. 1870
* R. M. Townsend, .
A. Paul Turner (N. R.)
M. J. Grier
L. A. Dull l ino
J. A. McFerran
* Charles T. Hunter
James V. Ingham .
J. Solis Cohen
John II. Grove
* Lucius S. Bolles
* W. F. Jenks .
Thos. R. Dunglisou (N
* R. M. Bertolet
* Wm. Ashbridge
R. A. Cleemann
W. H. Finn
I. Minis Hays
A. G. B. Hinkle
Wm. G. Porter
Oscar H. Allis
H. F. Baxter .
Leonardo S. Clark
W. R. Cruice .
George S. Gerhard
| Richard Thomas
[| W. H. Wallace
Arthur Van Harlingen
II A. C. W. Beecher
A. C. Deakyne
J. C. Wilson .
W. H. Bennett
Wm. H. Webb
Theodore F. Seyfert
Arthur V. Meigs
* R. Burns
ti f <
Joseph J. Kirkbride
(George McClellan .
R. II . Alison .
L. K. Baldwin
Edward Shippen, U. S. X.
Morris J. Lewis
E. O. Shakespeare
John M. Keating .
Theodore C. Wormley
Jesse Williamson (N. R.)
|| Robert J. Hess
J. William White .
Edward T. Bruen .
John B. Roberts .
Washington H. Baker
Wm. Barton Hopkins
| W. Penn Buck
De Forest Willard
H. €. Chapman
J. Henry C. Simes
J. T. Esk ridge
Chas. W. Dulles .
Chas. K. Mills
Hush Shippen Huidekoper
* Frank C. Hand
H. Augustus Wilson
Richard Ashbridge. U. S. X
* Frederick C. Sheppard
A. Sydney Roberts
Joseph F. Edwards
Edward E. Montgomer
Daniel E. Hughes (N. R.)
William II. Parish
John H. Musser
N. Archer Randolph
J. P. Crozer Griffith
George A. Piersol .
Charles Ilarrod Vinton
Ferdinand H. Gross
William M. Welch .
Henry Morris .
Benjamin F. Baer .
Griffith E. Abbot .
Oliver P. Rex .
Milton B. Musser
Henry Beates .
H. W. Stel wagon .
Robert Meade Smith
John C. Da Costa .
Francis M. Perkins
Charles A. Oliver .
S. S. Stryker .
Roland G. Curtin .
J. W. O'Neill
Thomas H. Fenton
Tliomas Hewson Bradford
J. Gibbons Hunt
H. F. Formad
Henry M. Fisher
Phineas T. Horwitz
Frederick P. Henry
(Jiarles Shaff ner
Tliomas M. Drysdale .
Alexander W. Biddle
H. R. Wharton
Houston Mifflin (\. R.)
John W. Mallet (N. R.)
James B. Walker
Robert M. Girvin
Joseph M. Fox
Phi ip Leidy .
Richard H. Harte
Edward T. Reichert .
Thomas J. Mays .
Leonardo Da Vine: Judd
John B. Chapin
James W. Holland
Thomas C. Potter
Joseph S. Neff
Howard F. Hansel!
Louis Jurist .
Edward W. Watson
Charles E. Cadwalader
John Madison Taylor
* Nicholas Way, Wilmington, Del.
* James Tilton, Dover, Del.
* Isaac Senter, Newport, R. I.
* David Hosack, New York
* Samuel Bard, New York .
* Jacob Bigelow. Boston, Mass. .
* Daniel Drake, Cincinnati, O.
* Reuben D. Mussey, Cincinnati. 0.
* John Revere, New York .
* George Cheyne Shattuck, Boston. Mass.
* Theodoric R. Beck, Albany. N. Y.
* Frederick S. Eckard .
* Peter Parker, Washington. D. C.
* Benjamin W. Dudley, Lexington. Ky.
* Nathan R. Smith. Baltimore. Md.
* John Hubbard, Hallowell, Me.
* Thomas Bewail, Washington, D. C.
* John Ware, Boston, Mass.
* Amos Twitchell, Keene, N. fT.
* N. D. Benedict, Florida
John C. Warren, Boston, Mass.
Richard D. Arnold, Savannah, Ga. .
Thomas Stewardson, Savannah, Ga.
John L. Atlee, Lancaster, Pa.
Jonathan Knight, New Haven, Conn. .
Alexander H. Stevens, New York .
James MeNaughton. Albany, N. Y.
Beverly R. Welford, Fredericksburg, Va
Henry Miller, Louisville, Ky. .
Austin Flint, Sr., New York
Frank H. Hamilton, New York
Wilmer Worthington, Westchester, Pa. .
Henry I. Bowditch, Boston, Jlass. .
Henry J. Bigelow, Boston, Mass. .
J. B. S. Jackson. Boston, Mass.
Alonzo Clark, New York . . . .
Willard Parker, New York
Fordyce Barker, New York
E. M. Moore, Rochester, N. Y.
F. Donaldson, Baltimore, Md. .
Christopher Johnston, Baltimore, Md.
John S. Billings, U. S. A.. Washingt n, I
N. S. Davis. Chicago, RL
C. G. Comegys, Cincinnati, O. .
W. O. Baldwin, Montgomery, Ala. .
John T. Hod gen, St. Louis, Mo.
R. A. Kinloch, Charleston, S. C.
F. Peyre Porcher, Charleston, S. C.
Joseph Jones, New Orleans, La.
Traill Green, Easton, Pa
A. M. Pollock, Pittsburg, Pa. .
James King, Pittsburg, Pa.
Hiram Corson, Norristown, Pa.
R. B. Mowry, Allegheny City, Pa. .
Stanford E. Clmillc, New 7 Orleans, La. .
William H. Byford, Chicago, 111.
Peter Renaudet, Bristol, England .
William Patterson, Londonderry, Ireland
John Coakley Lettsom, London, England
P. Ch. A. Louis, Paris, France
Jonathan P-reira, London, England
Sir Robert Christison, Edinburgh, Scotland
Archibald Hall, Canada ....
Fleetwood Churchill, Dublin, Ireland
John M. Lever, London, England .
E. Gintrac, Bordeaux, France .
Gaetano Valery, Florence, Italy
! Hermann Walther, Dresden, Saxony
Pedro Gonzales Velasco, Madrid, Spain
K. G. H. Butcher, Dublin, Ireland .
G. H. B. Macleod, Edinburgh, Scotland .
Th. de Valcourt, Cannes, France
* P. F. Da Costa Alvarenga, Lisbon, Portugal
* W. Boeck, Christiania, Norway
Sir Henry YV. Acland, Oxford, England .
John W. Ogle, London, England
* Thomas B. Peacock, London, England .
Sir James Paget, Bart., London, England
.). Hughlings Jackson, London, England
George Johnson, London, England .
Sir Joseph Lister, Bart., Edinburgh, Scotland
Robert Barnes, London, England .
J. Milner Fothergill, London, England .
* Amedee Courty, Montpellier, France
Christopher Heath, London, England
Sir Joseph Fayrer, London, England
C ORRESP N D 1 N G M E M B E R S
Adolphe Waaseige, Liege, Belgium
Fleniming Carrow, Canton, China .
Domenico Chiara, Milan, Italy .
Jean Rendu, Lyons, France
Kannv Loll Dey, Calcutta, India
NOTE. — In the four issues, preceding the last three of the
Charter, Ordinances, and By-laws, an appendix was added, con-
taining the. articles of agreement between the College and the
late Dr. Thomas D. Mutter, as well as "extracts from the exem-
plification of Deed of Thomas D. Mutter < t ux. to the Pennsyl-
vania Cotupam for Insurances on Lives and Granting Annuities.
This matter is now printed in a separate form, and can be ob-
tained by application to the Secretary or Librarian of the College.
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